Urban legends and myths are prevalent in drug-use environments. However, the distinction between myth and fact is not always clear. We found contradictory claims regarding the emergence of cold cook methods for producing methamphetamine when contrasting user-generated reports with official reports repudiating such methods as myths. Our aim is to open the topic for more academic discussion. Data were collected in the suburbs of a large southeastern city in the United States. We compare the data with reports from law enforcement professionals and public health officials.
Official reports claim the cold cook method described by users in our study is a myth and does not produce methamphetamine. Small-scale producers sell it as methamphetamine and users claim it has the same effect as methamphetamine. They are charged for possession and distribution of methamphetamine when caught with this drug. It appears the unintended consequences of recent policy aimed to reduce production and use of methamphetamine may be a user-friendly production method.
We do not know the health implications at this time. We do not make any definitive conclusions on the legitimacy of the stories or myths discussed here but instead suggest that labeling drug stories as myths might lead to dismissing facts that hold partial truth. The subsequent dismissal of cold cook methods among policy and public health officials risks a range of unintended consequences among vulnerable populations.
We present our case for more research attention on the myths of methamphetamine production. In we began a study on methamphetamine use in the suburbs of a large southeastern city of the United States. We conducted ethnographic research among diverse drug networks and interviewed methamphetamine users who lived and used methamphetamine in the suburbs. Respondents recounted similar but slightly different accounts of how to grow methamphetamine crystals on strings.
The ingredients included pseudoephedrine, red phosphorus, charcoal, gun bluing and aluminum shavings. Other recipes involved various cleaning fluids such as acetone and ammonia or chemicals such as iodine. Ingredients were mixed or layered in a container, typically a fish tank or five gallon bucket, and the container was buried in the ground or kept in a dark closet for up to 28 days until crystals grew on strings suspended above the chemical solution.
The process also allowed the production to be hidden from view, either underground or in a dark closet or basement. We decided to investigate this method further. We used a field trial design to expedite the background research. Our basis of information beyond the suburban methamphetamine users interviewed for our study included: 1 official sources, such as criminal justice websites and public health reports; 2 correspondence with the local forensic laboratory chemist; 3 Internet websites found by using word search engines; and 4 conversations with professional colleagues.
Our goal in this paper is to disseminate the claims from disparate sources regarding cold cook methods of methamphetamine production and open this topic to academic discussion and research attention.
As more of our respondents referenced the cold cook method of producing methamphetamine we began our field trial investigation to distinguish the legitimacy of their claims. Our previous understanding on methamphetamine production involved processes requiring a viable heat source and having the potential of violent explosions, as well as the dispersion of noxious chemicals.
Our lack of knowledge on the cold cook method referenced by our respondents prompted us to conduct an on-line investigation. A term search on the Internet produced a number of recipes similar to those we heard from our respondents.
Methamphetamine myths often involve methods of obtaining precursors, such as extracting chemicals from common retail items, as well as methods of producing methamphetamine using ordinary products as precursors. Some methamphetamine abusers may be trying to contend with practical issues—such as faster and cheaper ways to manufacture the drug—when they stumble upon what they believe to be a new method of production or an easier way to obtain a precursor.
Consequently, abusers attempting to manufacture methamphetamine often are the source of unfounded information concerning methamphetamine production.
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How Meth Works
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Researchers have found that certain nutrients and vitamins, can reduce the risk of certain eye diseases, including macular degeneration and cataracts. Types All Articles. Types of Vision Blindness The word blindness is used for complete or nearly complete vision loss, which is not correctable by standard glasses, contact lenses, or medicine. Common causes of blindness are macular degeneration, infections of the cornea or retina, glaucoma, traumatic injuries, diabetes, etc.
The treatment and prognosis for blindness is dependent on its cause. Cataracts Cataract is a clouding of the eye's natural lens, which lies behind the pupil. Most cataracts are related to aging and can occur in both the eyes. Surgery is the only way to remove a cataract and is usually safe and effective, resulting in improvement of vision. Most common symptoms of a cataract are cloudy, blurry, or misty vision.
Color Blindness Color blindness, also known as color vision deficiency CVDis a deficiency in the way you see a color. It affects males more frequently than females, red-green color deficiency is the most common form of color blindness. Color blindness is hereditary and is passed on from mother to son. It can also be caused by eye diseases, aging or retina damage. Diabetic Macular Edema. Diabetic Retinopathy Diabetic retinopathy is most common among people with diabetes.
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The disease usually affects both the eyes and is the second leading cause of blindness. Glaucoma is further categorized into open-angle glaucoma OAG and narrow angle glaucoma. Treatment usually involves eye drops, though lasers and surgery can also be done. How Is Glaucoma Treated? Hyperopia Hyperopia, also known as farsightedness, is a common type of refractive error in which close objects appear blurry whereas distant objects may be seen more clearly.
In this condition your eyes focus the images behind the retina instead of on the retina. Symptoms of hyperopia include blurry vision, headaches or eyestrain.The production of methamphetamine — and the desire to consume it — is seemingly unstoppable. When precursor chemicals are brought under tight control in one country, like the United States, production simply moves to another country, such as Mexico.
When Mexican authorities clamp down, it moves farther south, or into Europe or Asia. Then, the finished product is shipped right back into the very countries that have waged such a battle to eradicate it in the first place.
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Most meth smuggled into the United States is made in large labs — "superlabs" — in Mexico. There are many small meth labs in operation in the United States, but these mostly serve to feed the habits of the amateur cooks themselves. The production of methamphetamine has been made more difficult by federal regulations, like the Combat Methamphetamine Act ofaimed at controlling the flow of precursor chemicals such as ephedrine and pseudoephedrine found in some cold remediesas well as other necessary components.
Through theft, subterfuge, forgeries, personal connections and sheer willpower, determined cooks are able to collect enough materials to make some home-grown meth. Being determined and being safe are two different things — almost 6 pounds 2. This fact, however, doesn't stop crystal meth addicts from brewing sloppy batches of fuming, stinking, toxic speed in poorly ventilated environments.
Houses used as meth labs are often uninhabitable afterward, and cities and states involved in meth lab busts often don't bother with seizing the property, since nobody in their right mind would purchase it at an auction, even at a steep discount. Small meth labs can be found in suburban houses, motel rooms, car trunks, in campsites or in the woods. Outdoor operations often result in water contamination and a dying-off of nearby vegetation [source: Snell ].
Large-scale labs are often located inside abandoned barns or warehouses set up specifically for the purpose of factory-line production of methamphetamine. They aren't necessarily dilapidated properties. They may actually be glistening corporate-style factories that crank out countless pounds of meth per year [source: Matthews ].
Much as a destination can be reached by taking one of several different routes, so too can crystal methamphetamine be produced by a number of different methods, including scary "shake-and-bake" and "one-pot" processes. All of them, though, involve ephedrine or pseudoephedrine.
The entire process can involve as many as 32 different chemicals, but the formula varies by the ingenuity and intelligence of the "chemists" [source: Snell ].
Without getting into an exact recipe, we'll look at how large-scale operations which are more likely to use a methodical and exact approach to their production make crystal meth. This process generally takes about two days' time and can result in hundreds of thousands of methamphetamine doses.
Prev NEXT. How to Make Meth. Chemicals and equipment were found in a methamphetamine manufacturing lab following a police raid on Jan. New Zealand Police discovered 75 similar labs across the country. If the ephedrine or pseudoephedrine isn't already in pure powder form, then it must be separated from the tablets of cold medicine that contain it. To do this, the cold medicine tablets are mixed with a solvent and the solution is then filtered and exposed to low temperatures to separate and remove the inert material of the tablet.
The pure pseudoephedrine is then mixed with red phosphorus and hydriodic acid.
The red phosphorus is then filtered out and later reusedand the remaining acid is neutralized by adding a lye solution. A substance is added that will bind to the meth, and the liquid meth is then drained out.
Hydrogen chloride gas is bubbled through the liquid meth, making it a crystalline hydrochloride salt. This is poured through a filter cloth, and the meth that is left on the filter is then dried. Once dry, the meth is "stepped on" mixed down with inert filler in order to maximize profitsweighed and packaged for shipment or sale.A RP-LC method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of the active components, azilsartan medoxomil AZL and chlorthalidone CLTin their novel antihypertensive combined recipe.
The flow rate was maintained at 0. The method was validated according to the ICH guidelines. Linearity, accuracy, and precision were satisfactory over the concentration range of 5. Both drugs were subjected to forced degradation studies under hydrolysis neutral, acidic, and alkalineoxidative, and photolytic extensive stress conditions. The proposed method is stability indicating by the resolution of the investigated drugs from their degradation products.
Moreover, the kinetics of the acidic degradation of AZL as well as the kinetics of the alkaline degradation of CLT were investigated. Arrhenius plots were constructed and the apparent first-order rate constants, half-life times, shelf-life times, and the activation energies of the degradation processes were calculated.
The method was successfully applied for the determination of the studied drugs simultaneously in their coformulated tablet. The developed method is specific and stability indicating for the quality control and routine analysis of the cited medications in their pharmaceutical preparations.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Rent this article via DeepDyve. Ann Pharmacother — Vasc Health Risk Manag — Eur J Pharmacol — ISRN Spectrosc Sweetman S Martindale: the complete drug reference, 36th edn. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. Singh B, Patel DK, Ghosh SK A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method for determination of chlorthalidone in pharmaceutical formulation.
Int J Pharm Sci — Int J Pharm Sci Res — Food Addit Contam, Part A — Salem H High-performance thin-layer chromatography for the determination of certain antihypertensive mixtures.
Sci Pharm — J Pharm Biomed Anal — Parmar KE, Mehta RS First order derivative spectrophotometric method for simultaneous estimation of telmisartan and chlorthalidone in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form.
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With the push of a button, a machine synthesizes your blood pressure medication, without a trip to the pharmacy. In a YouTube videoMichael Laufer, a math professor at Menlo College in California and spokesperson for the hacking group, instructs viewers on the steps to create the device.
Researchers found that consumer out-of-pocket spending for the drug soared percent between and Meanwhile, prescriptions for it nearly tripled. EpiPen contains a potentially life-saving dose of epinephrine that treats anaphylactic shock, a condition that can cause airways to close and blood pressure to drop rapidly, resulting in death.
The device took on a symbolic quality: the greed of the pharmaceutical industry stymied by a cheap product that could be assembled using parts bought on Amazon. While many praised the device on this level, actual support for the device as a real-world tool was scant.
Neither FDA nor the American public have any assurance that unapproved products are effective, safe or produced under current good manufacturing practices CGMPs. Laufer does believe in his work as a real tool to be used by those in need and not just a symbolic gesture.
What exactly is the danger? Despite the criticism, the group has continued to forge ahead in the year since they were thrust into the spotlight.
Currently, the Four Thieves Vinegar Collective is working on a handful of drug formulas that they hope to make available through the internet. Hepatitis C drugs remain some of the most expensive treatments in the United States.
The next step for the group is releasing an updated version of their Apothecary Micro Lab, the machine central to synthesizing and producing drugs at home. Readers should be aware that there are both potential legal and safety implications of using the device and any of the formulas provided. Laufer also believes there is potential for such a decentralized system of drug manufacturing to also include federal oversight.
What is clear, he insists, is that in a world of soaring drug costs, there will be a breaking point. The fall of former CEO Martin Shkreli hasn't discouraged pharmaceutical companies from hiking up the prices of some of their medications. The Auvi-Q epinephrine auto-injector will be available again early next year, more than a year after the main competitor to the EpiPen was voluntarily….
If you have an anaphylaxis attack, you may have to concern yourself with expiration dates and having the wherewithal to auto-inject your own thigh. A psychotropic drug is a drug that affects behavior, mood, thoughts, or perception. There are dozens, both prescription and commonly misused. We'll explain medication safety: how to properly take, store, and handle medications and what to do if you accidentally take too much or the wrong one. Collagen is an essential building block for the entire body, from skin to gut, and more.
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